This R34 pilot study is designed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of telehealth problem-solving therapy (tele-PST) for homebound older adults suffering from clinically significant moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Equipment includes a broadband cable or DSL modem and a wireless videoconferencing device that is securely connected to an older adult’s home television set and to the therapist’s workstation, with the conferencing beginning when the therapist calls the older-adult client. The real-time, interactive videoconferencing is likely to allow the therapist and the client most of the benefits of in-person sessions.
In order to pursue the study aims, we have chosen a two-phase research design. In Phase I, we will implement an uncontrolled feasibility study of six weekly sessions of tele-PST with 10 subjects recruited from a Meals on Wheels program and an in-home support services program in central Texas and evaluate the subjects’ acceptance of the intervention and procedural and logistical issues that may arise during its implementation. At a 2-week, one-time follow-up, the subjects’ depression, disability, and resourcefulness will also be assessed.
In Phase II, we will implement a small-scale, three-group RCT with 30 subjects in each group. The first group will receive up to six weekly tele-PST sessions. The second group will receive up to six weekly in-person PST sessions. Both groups will also receive six monthly maintenance calls from their therapists following the PST sessions. The Phase I findings will guide any modifications and adaptations in tele-PST and in-person PST procedures to be used in Phase II. In-person PST serves as the benchmark or gold standard of comparison for detecting signals that are suggestive of efficaciousness of tele-PST. The third group, an attention control group, will receive six weekly telephone calls and six monthly calls. All three groups will continue to receive their usual services of home-delivered meals or in-home support services and case management from their agency case managers. Two MSW-level therapists will be used, each of whom will conduct both tele-PST and in-person PST sessions. Specific aims in this phase are to (1) assess adequacy of recruitment, enrollment, and retention strategies with special attention to racial/ethnic minorities, and of research instruments; (2) compare compliance rates and service delivery cost between tele-PST and in-person PST; and (3) estimate preliminary effect size and detect clinically significant signals with regard to depression, disability, other health status, and resourcefulness outcomes of tele-PST compared to those of in-person PST and attention control condition at 2 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks following the conclusion of the 6 weekly PST sessions.
The findings are expected to provide data necessary for designing a future RCT to test the replicability, therapeutic efficacy, and cost effectiveness of tele-PST with a larger sample of disabled homebound persons.