Data from the 2001 and 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health were used to test a conceptual risk-protective model of prenatal alcohol consumption.

Goals of the study were to assess the relative contribution of 4 domains (individual risk, social/environmental risk, individual protective, and social/environmental protective) in explaining variance in alcohol use among pregnant women; to determine the importance of specific predictors within each of the 4 domains; and to explore variation in domain contributions and important predictors among women of different ethnic backgrounds.