Research and Evaluation

ARI logoARI has had a number of evaluation, research, and training projects funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), and the Texas Department of State Health Services.

Recovery Support Services

In 2014 the Texas government issued a competitive bid to provide sustained, community-based recovery support services to individuals with substance use disorders. The resulting network of service providers is collectively known as the Recovery Support Services (RSS) project. The Addiction Research Institute was engaged by the Health and Human Services Commission to develop the RSS data reporting system and to serve as the evaluator for the RSS project.

Drug Trends Reports and Trainings

Border Studies

Heroin and other opioids

  • Normalization of Heroin: A Study of Heroin as a “Club Drug,”NIDA study
  • Abuse of Prescription Drugs (PDF)
  • Abuse of Codeine Cough Syrup (PDF)
  • Abuse of Cheese Heroin in Dallas (PDF)
  • Maxwell, J.C. (2015). The pain reliever and heroin epidemic in the United States: Shifting winds in the perfect storm. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 34 (1)
  • Walker, R., Maxwell, J.C., Adinoff, B., Carmondy, T., Coton, C. E., Tirado, C. F. (2014). Characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American Adolescents in Treatment for “Cheese.” Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 13, 258-272.
  • Goldberger, B.A., Maxwell, J.C., Campbell, A., Wilford, B.B. (2013). Uniform Standards and Case Definitions for Classifying Opioid-Related Deaths: Recommendations by a SAMHSA Consensus Panel. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 32, 3.
  • Maxwell, J.C. (2013) Epidemiology and demography of prescription drugs and the older person. in I. Crome, P., Crome, T. Rao, & L-T Wu., Substance Use in Older People, Oxford: Wiley Press.
  • Maxwell, J. C., Coleman, J. J., Feng, S-Y, Goto, C. S. & Tirado, C. F. (2012). Cheese: An old drug in a new wrapper. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 126, 161-167.
  • Maxwell, J. C. (2011). The prescription drug epidemic in the United States: A perfect storm. Drug and Alcohol Review, 30, 264-270.
  • Maxwell, J. C. & McCance-Katz, E. F. (2010). Indicators of buprenorphine and methadone use and abuse: What do we know? American Journal on the Addictions, 19, 73-88.
  • Podus, D., Maxwell, J. D., & Anglin, M. D. (2010). Public Health Emergencies and Substance Abuse in G. Kapur & J. Smith, Emergency Public Health: Preparedness and Response, Boston: Jones & Bartlett.
  • Maxwell, J. C., Podus, D., & Walsh, D. (2009). Lessons learned from the deadly sisters: Drug treatment disruption & consequences from Hurricanes Katrina & Rita, Substance Use & Misuse, 44:1681-1694.
  • Maxwell, J. C., Spence, R. T. (2006). An exploratory study of inhalers & injectors who used black tar heroin, Journal of Maintenance in the Addictions, 3(1), 61-81.
  • Maxwell, J.C., Pullum,W. & Tannert, K. (2005). Deaths of Clients in Methadone Treatment in Texas: 1994-2002. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 78(1): 73-81. PMID: 15769560
  • Maxwell, J.C., Pullum, T.W. & Tannert, K. (2005). Deaths of clients in methadone treatment in Texas: 1994-2002. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 78(1), 73-81.
  • Maxwell, J. C., Bohman, T., & Spence, R. T. (2004). Differences in characteristics of heroin inhalers & heroin injectors at admission to treatment: A preliminary study using a large database of client records. Substance Use & Misuse, 39(6), 989-1008.
  • Maxwell, C. & Pullum, T.W. (2001). Using a Modification of the Capture-Recapture Model to Estimate the Number of Heroin Addicts in Need of Publicly Funded Treatment in Texas. Evaluation and Program Planning, 24: 257-265.

Impaired Driving

  • Drinking, Driving and Drugs: Trajectories of DWI Recidivism and How to Intervene, NIAAA study
  • Impaired Drivers: Where do they come from and can they be identified? Transportation Research Board, 2013 (PDF)
  • Maxwell, J. C. (2014). Cannabis and alcohol: Is there a relationship for drivers? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 140, e137.
  • Maxwell, J. C Impaired Drivers: Where do they come from and can they be identified? Transportation Research Board (2012).
  • Maxwell, J.C. (2012). Drunk Versus Drugged: How Different Are the Drivers? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 121: 68–72.
  • Maxwell, J.C., Freeman, J., & Davey, J. (2011). Characteristics of Impaired Drivers Who Enter Substance Abuse Treatment in D. Hennessy, Traffic Psychology: An International Perspective, NY: Nova Science.
  • Freeman, J.E., Maxwell, J.C. & Davey, J.D. (2011). Unraveling the Complexity of Driving While Intoxicated: A Study into the Prevalence of Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Comorbidity.Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43: 34-39.
  • Maxwell J.C., Freeman J.E. & Davey J.D. (2009). Too Young to Drink but Old Enough to Drive under the Influence: A Study of Underage Offenders as Seen in Substance Abuse Treatment in Texas. Journal of Addiction Medicine. 1: 173-179
  • Maxwell, J. C., Freeman, J. E., & Davey, J. D. (2007). A large scale study of the characteristics of impaired drivers in Treatment in Texas. Journal of Addiction Medicine. 1, 173-179.
  • Maxwell, J. C. & Freeman, J. E. (2007). Gender differences in DUI offenders in treatment in Texas Traffic Injury Prevention, 8: 353-360.


  • Monitoring the Changing Methamphetamine Market in the Austin Area, NIDA study
  • Maxwell, J. C. (2014). A new survey of methamphetamine users in treatment: Who they are, why they like “meth,” and why they need additional services. Substance Use and Misuse, 49, 6, 639-644.
  • Cunningham, J. K., Maxwell, J. C., Campollo, O., Liu, L-M, Lattyak, W. J., & Callaghan, R. C. (2013). Mexico’s precursor chemical controls: Emergence of less potent types of methamphetamine in the United States. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 129, 1-2, 25-136
  • Maxwell, J.C. & Brecht M. L. (2011). Methamphetamine: Here we go again? Addictive Behaviors 36, 1168-1173.
  • Cunningham J. K., Maxwell J. C., Campollo O., Cunningham K. I., Liu L-M, & Lin H-L. (2010). Proximity to the US-Mexico Border: A Key to Explaining Geographic Variation in US Methamphetamine, Cocaine, and Heroin Purity. Addiction, 105, 1785-1798
  • .Cunningham J. K., Bojorquez I., Campollo O., Liu L-M., & Maxwell J. C. (2010). Mexico’s methamphetamine precursor chemical interventions: Impacts on drug treatment admissions. Addiction, 105, 1973-1983
  • Rutkowski, B. F. & Maxwell, J.C. (2009). Epidemiology of Methamphetamine Use – A Global Perspective in J. M. Roll, R. Rawson, W. Ling, & S. Shoptaw (Eds). Methamphetamine addiction. New York: Guilford.
  • Maxwell, J. C. & Rutkowski, B. F., (2008). The prevalence of methamphetamine & amphetamine abuse in North America: A review of the indicators. Drug & Alcohol Review, 27, 229-235.
  • Maxwell, J. C., Finnerty, B. F., & Rawson, R. (2007). Substance abuse epidemiology in the United States: A review of the indicator data in A. D. Kalechstein & W. van Gorp, Neuropsychology & Substance Use: State–of–the–Art & Future Directions. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.
  • Maxwell, J. C. (2005). Emerging research on methamphetamine, Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18, 235-242.

Novel Psychoactive Drugs

Other projects